Several participants who stressed the benefits of organizational trainings were based at federal agencies, while one worked at a big international NGO BINGO. Do you know that you can ask? Like, I didn't know! Includes relationships with leaders advisors, supervisors, upper management, and mentors and peers colleagues across organizations.
Participants also described support from peers who share experiences of workplace challenges, and men who demonstrate their belief in gender equality.
Both leaders and peers provide support by being trustworthy people with whom participants could have honest conversations. Although participants mentioned that some younger male colleagues seem more egalitarian than older men, many underscored that they believe inclusive leadership by older people is essential because of these leaders' greater positional power within organizations.
Young women encountered more sexual harassment than older women, particularly from older and more senior men, assumptions of inadequacy, and perceptions that femininity is incompatible with field science competence. More senior women reported obstacles to formal promotion. Questions remain about whether and how these patterns are changing. Participants also described many supports helping them advance that may transform conservation workplaces.
Others, such as leadership and DEI trainings, are more comprehensive efforts to change institutional culture and empower individuals. Supportive relationships with peers and leaders, but particularly those in senior positions, were seen as critical for increasing women's access to opportunities, building women's skills and confidence, normalizing women's representation in senior leadership, and creating inclusive conservation workspaces. These supports may also be useful to all people, regardless of gender.
The challenges identified here may limit women conservationists' leadership directly, if they are promoted less frequently than men, or indirectly, if they are perceived as less competent or less fitted for leadership. They may also erode women's confidence or lead them to perceive workplaces to be unfair, unwelcoming, or unsafe.
Gender inequality at all levels can thus be deleterious to organizational success. In this study we used intersectionality theory to explore women conservation leaders' perceptions of how gender identity has affected their careers in interaction with the unique circumstances that different individuals navigate Healy et al. Findings suggest that further research could productively apply this framing to disentangle the complexities of doing conservation work globally.
More comprehensive investigation is also needed into the perceptions and experiences of women of color in conservation leadership, particularly the differences and similarities amongst their experiences, as well as those of other marginalized groups such as those whose experiences are shaped by social class, sexuality, or gender identity Bowser et al. Finally, research is needed to understand how men in conservation perceive and take action about issues of gender, intersectionality, and difference, and to identify actions conservation institutions are undertaking to become more inclusive and just Bennett, Conservation is avowedly a crisis discipline, in which human, technical, and financial capital is widely recognized as insufficient to overcome the environmental challenges we face Bottrill et al.
It is therefore counterproductive if people working in this field are being subtly and systematically excluded, intentionally or otherwise. More effort is needed to identify effective strategies for making conservation a more inclusive, empowering, and appealing profession in which to work. We thank our study participants for giving their time and sharing their experiences. Both authors approved the final manuscript for publication. Due to possible sensitivity of human subjects' data, interview files and transcriptions are only accessible to the authors. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors.
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Conservation Science and Practice.
Correll, S. While gender discrimination is a universal phenomena in poor nations, a UN study found that social norms-based gender discrimination leads to gender inequality in India. Ryan MS and Haslam A The glass cliff: Evidence that women are over-represented in precarious leadership positions. Acknowledgements This article was written as part of the research project Gender, Power and Reconfigured Corporatism in Finland funded by the Academy of Finland. Data Archive, Cologne.
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Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Leadership and inclusivity are increasingly recognized as fundamental to conservation success, yet women's leadership within the conservation profession is understudied. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
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Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Since , a series of studies by consulting and research firms as well as academics have claimed that companies with the most women board directors show better financial performance Catalyst, ; Joy et al. For example, Desvaux et al. No great shifts have been noted at the very top of organisations since the economic argument was first made around a decade ago. The trajectory can even be downward: Coleman : 3 notes that the edition of the Sex and Power index published by the Equality and Human Rights Commission EHRC recorded fewer women in six categories than there had been over the 5 years previously.
Like any other commercial business case, the gender parity case relies on the validity of its assumption set. A range of academic research suggests that this is not the case. But they are piling flimsy evidence on dubious argument to produce politically correct hokum. Academic evidence appears to not underpin the claims made by Catalyst, McKinsey, the Davies report and numerous journalists, that more women lead to better financial results: academics Van Dijk et al.
Professor of psychology and management Alice Eagly, citing two meta-analyses, one of studies on Board gender diversity Post and Byron, and one of 20 studies Pletzer et al. Gini goes further to claim that women feel they have to beat men at their own game by demonstrating they can be tougher and more resilient.
Back in , De Beauvoir : 21 pointed out that women are neither a minority group nor a homogenous unit with a common history, culture, religion or social class, and according to academics Mattis, ; Rindfleish, ; Mavin, , sisterhood and solidarity behaviour sets expectations that senior women do not want to or cannot fulfil, and they often dislike being singled out on the basis of their gender.
Wake up, folks: I studied history and politics, and my hobby horse was international affairs. Are you nuts? Lisa Belkin The key narratives are that women lack the ambition and appetite for power; women are holding themselves back and need to grow in confidence; and success is down to individual effort any woman willing to work hard can make it to the top.
In Germany, women have been described as cowards who withdraw into the comfort of coupled life and motherhood Bierach, ; Mika, and fail to enjoy the competitive pressure of a job Mika : 12— Judge Business School, January Professor of Sociology of Organisations Alicia E. Kaufman claims that while much has been said about stereotypes and the traditional roles of women, the real crux of the matter is that women are blocking their own access to upper management.
The tenor of these contributions is that women are just not trying hard enough and leave the football pitch, arguing that all the kicking and offside rules are too tough and only made for men Bierach and Thorborg, : That is important, but much broader social, political and cultural change is also necessary. Economists Gneezy et al. Such factors can lead to a socially acceptable expressed lack of ambition by women, but does not mean women are unambitious or do not want a career.
Organisational psychologists Peters et al. Medieval and early modern societies saw women as defective, less intelligent and less rational beings who were less able to control their passions and therefore prone to immorality.