Many things still tie Anzoletto to Venice, however, including the love of Domenica, an authentic putta de campielo. A central component of the work, seasoned by secondary plot threads between other characters, remains the predicament of separation that threatens the young lovers. The card tournament, an open game that nonetheless affords privacy as each team strategizes in secret, becomes a pretext ripe with possibilities for the advancement of their relationship. The brief excerpt below illustrates the manner in which Goldoni embeds important progress of action a resolution between two lovers within an exteriorly fixed scene:.
Mancheremo nualtri. Mo i compatisso, poverazzi! Se la savesse, quanto che me despiase. De cossa?
De doverla lassar. Che la leva. Qua no se sente altro, che de le busie. Vorla vegnir in Moscovia con mi?
Nol dise mal. Col consenso de so sior padre. No vorla? Bravo, bravo dasseno. Spade, che la vegna.
Chi zoga spade? Mi; el cinque de spade. E mi el cavalo. Via a lori. Goldoni walks a line of equilibrium within the three-part conversation and the juxtaposition of the trio to the ongoing game. The occasional intrusion of other characters thereby creates the illusion of simultaneity.
While vocal overlap can be easily created in musical ensembles, the illusion of simultaneous discourse is still effectively rendered in prose, a tangible link between opera theatre and comedy. So rich are the possibilities afforded by this polyphonic design, that Goldoni adheres to this strategy for the entire act. The monologue is a typical device in these cases, as for example:. No so gnanca mi. Ma pur? Quel che la comanda. La resta servida, che adessadesso vegno anca mi.
Vorla restar qua? Un pochetto. Se la me permette? La se comoda. Ho capio; la se vol conseggiar da so posta. Che la varda de no far pezo. No so quala far. Our grieving heroine of noble resolve is no longer an aristocratic prima donna , but a humble seamstress within a guild of artisans in a dialectal world.
Yet, her piece reflects the same interior conflict, sadness, longing, and ultimately the same resolution of self-sacrifice that are emblematic of the true parte seria ; nor should the use of Venetian be seen as a detraction from the weight of her words. While elsewhere Goldoni mixes dialects with standard Italian for comic contrast or caricature, this comedy, as his other Venetian works, shares no affinity to that purpose.
Rather, it is simply the realistic representation of the world of the author and his audience not to mention the fact that Venetian was once an international language in Europe, and that, as also testified by Neapolitan comedy, dialect did not pertain only to popular sphere at the time.
Notably, elements of serio or larmoyant as we find in Una delle ultime sere do not appear exclusively in later comedies. The prose comedies that, like drammi giocosi , reap benefit from the inclusion of serio are many. Among these, an example of particular strength is Le avventure della villeggiatura The Adventures of Vacationing, , part two of the famous trilogy that includes Le smanie per la villeggiatura The Yearning for Vacation and Il ritorno dalla villeggiatura The Return from Vacation , in particular for the serio character Giacinta.
Portrayed as a comic flirt in the first comedy, in Le avventure Giacinta undergoes radical transformation. Her role becomes tragic as, torn between her love for Guglielmo and her promise of marriage to Leonardo, she is forced to renounce her feelings in order uphold her engagement. To her predicament Goldoni adds the additional pain of witnessing her lover ultimately promised to another woman. Ma come ha da finire, signora mia? Che mancassi alla mia parola?
Che si lacerasse un contratto? Che direbbe il mondo di me? The psychological realism of her lines contributes to the dramatic impact of her role and unequivocally seals the comedy as an exquisite mixture of buffo and serio , as we have often encountered in the drammi giocosi. The comedy also makes ample use of ensembles, with typical theatrical feats such as asides and parallel conversations, as well as the convergence of all characters at the conclusion of acts in operatic chorale style.
Coincidentally, the idea of villeggiatura, vacation in the countryside much in vogue among well-to-do Venetian families, is persistently made the object of comic critique in Goldoni, who in particular denounces the excesses of this fashion. The tradition is targeted not only in the other comedies of the villeggiatura trilogy Le smanie and Il ritorno but in numerous other comedies as well, including La castalda The Gastald, , I malcontenti The Dissatisfied, , and La villeggiatura a distinct work, A largely successful.
Venetian comedy that mixes Italian with dialect and masks with original characters, La putta onorata was premiered at the Teatro S. Angelo in and given for 22 consecutive nights. Oh povereta mi! Dove songio? In che casa songio?
The changeability of her role not only adds complexity to an original character but moreover contributes to an overarching sense of continual propulsion. In this comedy, in which action is dense and events are often hurried, characters change disposition within the span of a few lines. The combative heroine, the continual flow of action, and events such as infants swapped in the cradle or the abduction of a maiden, all point towards the adventurous, almost incredible, brand of action characteristic of new 18 th century novels. Of course La putta onorata is still an early work and in more mature comedies and drammi giocosi Goldoni will often prefer more realistic solutions.
Comedies that became drammi giocosi. Most often, Goldoni drew drammi giocosi from his comedies, though some themes first explored in his libretti also served as the foundation for later works of prose theatre.
Naturally, not all instances of adaptation reflect the same degree of adherence to their original. In the same way, other comedies do not explicitly testify the use of a libretto as a model, yet reveal a high degree of thematic affinity. The previously examined La ritornata di Londra , for example, exploits the comic yet critical topos of a woman pursued by an entourage of suitors taken up in several later prose works. By no coincidence, the typified character traits of the men, one an impetuous captain, another the antithetical, apathetic philosopher, allow comedy and character study particularly of the calibrated indifference of the latter at the same time.
Also akin to the peculiarity of La ritornata di Londra, all characters are of noble extraction; their tone is thus consistently elevated, though the high level of linguistic propriety is not always maintained in their actions. A looser resemblance with La ritornata di Londra can also be found in La donna stravagante The Bizarre Woman , a comedy in verse given during the same carnival season as the dramma giocoso Notwithstanding metrical constraints, this comedy appears particularly well developed in its characterizations and gained a positive reception at the Teatro San Luca.
According to the UNHCR some refugees died trying to cross the Mediterranean in while another were rescued. Arlecchino: Even barefoot you'll perform well if you are really a good actress! L: And what does he say? Cosa rara! Le restai accanto fino alla sera. Una spettatrice: Io so fare la rianimazione bocca a bocca!
Its protagonist Livia is complex and original, but as an orphaned girl under the guardianship of her uncle, however strong willed, she has little in common with the emancipated diva Petronilla. La donna bizzarra, also written for the Marchese Albergati, again presents a noblewoman this time widowed amid an entourage of suitors.
The number of gentlemen has now grown to four, none of whom are ultimately desirable. As Goldoni himself admits, the comedy was written in undue haste, therefore recycles choice scenes from the earlier La donna stravagante.